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Thus, in Mesoamerica there was, from early on, a profound interest in hieroglyphic writing and calendar making.Religious ideology, judged from art and iconography, was more highly developed in Mesoamerica than in the Andean region.As such, Teotihuacán constituted a second grand civilizational climax or “unification” (400–600 ).Teotihuacán power waned after about 600, and a “time of troubles” ensued, during which a number of states and nascent empires competed for supremacy.Sedentary village farming in Mesoamerica came into being by about 1500 .Corn (maize), beans, squashes, chili peppers, and cotton were the most important crops.

These changes first appeared in the southern Gulf coast region of what is now Mexico; and the sculptures, rendered in a style now called Olmec, are presumed to depict chiefs or rulers.

These early villagers wove cloth, made pottery, and practiced other typical Neolithic skills.

It appears that such villages were economically self-contained and politically autonomous, with an egalitarian social order.

Like the ancient civilizations of the Old World, those in the New World were characterized by kingdoms and empires, great monuments and cities, and refinements in the arts, metallurgy, and writing; the ancient civilizations of the Americas also display in their histories similar cyclical patterns of growth and decline, unity and disunity.

In the New World the roots of civilization lay in a native agricultural way of life.

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